Understanding a potentially common upper airway disorder: Empty nose syndrome
Empty Nose Syndrome (ENS) is thought to be an unusual outcome of sinus surgery due to excessive loss of nasal tissues, particularly from a pair of structures called the inferior turbinates. Turbinates usually function to warm and humidify air flowing into the nose. Patients with ENS often have severe nasal symptoms and develop very poor quality of life as well as mental health problems. As a result of these mixed symptoms, ENS patients are often misdiagnosed, mismanaged, and left to their own devices.
Our research has shown that ENS patients can be identified based on specific clinical symptoms and imaging of the sinuses. We have also found that by rebuilding structures within the nasal cavity known as inferior turbinate augmentation (ITA) we can greatly improve nasal function. However, little is known about the specific changes in nasal function with ENS, how mental health problems develop, or how to best treat these patients.
Our objectives are three-fold: 1) to measure the patterns of nasal airflow and sense of smell present in ENS patients by using computer analysis and smell testing; 2) to understand how ITA might improve function in ENS patients by measuring nasal airflow and sense of smell before and after surgery; and 3) to study the impact of ENS on mental health using depression and anxiety survey scores, and then measure the change in these scores after ITA to study the relationship between the nasal and mental health problems in ENS. By studying the relationship between nasal and psychiatric symptoms in ENS we will both improve our understanding of how this syndrome develops and improve our understanding of how surgical interventions might help mend these symptoms.