Anti-inflammatory cytokine function in individuals with type 2 diabetes: Impact of hyperglycemia and the restorative effects of exercise

Chronic low-grade inflammation (i.e. the persistent low-level production of pro-inflammatory factors by immune cells) is a major contributor to the development and progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We have recently demonstrated that cells from individuals with T2D also have impaired anti-inflammatory responses -- a defect that appears to be driven by hyperglycemia. Despite these novel observations, the relationship between hyperglycemia and impaired anti-inflammatory responses (and the underlying mechanisms) across individuals with varying levels of glycemic control has not been examined. Moreover, the ability of a lifestyle intervention to restore anti-inflammatory responses via normalization of blood glucose levels in individuals with T2D has not been evaluated. As such, we aim to: 1) determine whether a dose-response relationship exists between the level of hyperglycemia and magnitude of impairment in anti-inflammatory responses across individuals with varying levels of glycemic control, 2) explore the mechanisms linking hyperglycemia to impaired anti-inflammatory responses, and 3) evaluate the efficacy of a daily post-meal walking intervention to restore anti-inflammatory responses in individuals with T2D.