Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death in North American men. Treatment of the disease often involves blocking testosterone, an important regulator of cell survival and division in the prostate. But prostate tumours can eventually survive and grow even without testosterone, and once this occurs, there is no alternative therapy. Dr. Sandra Krueckl is investigating changes within cells that lead to testosterone-independence and progression of prostate cancer. She is also exploring evidence that suggests insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and cellular signalling molecules influenced by IFG-1, are key to the development of testosterone-independence. By illuminating these genetic changes, Krueckl hopes to identify molecular targets for cancer prevention and treatment strategies.