The recent increase in cases of tuberculosis, mainly due to an association with human immunodeficiency virus, poor living conditions, and the emergence of drug-resistant strains, has been described as a ""global emergency"" by the World Health Organization. New therapeutic strategies are urgently needed and this requires a better understanding of the interaction of the causal agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with the host cells, which include macrophages. Macrophages possess a powerful intracellular killing mechanism and play an essential role in immunity, but they are also the principal targets for mycobacterium. Mycobacterium inhibits the intracellular killing as well as antigen presentation at the cell surface to stimulate adaptive immunity. Dr. Ala-Eddine Deghmane is studying the molecular mechanisms by which pathogenic mycobacteria interferes with macrophage functions. His research aims to advance understanding of the host cells’ failure in resisting to mycobacterial infection and may lead to preventive and therapeutic anti-TB strategies.