Chronic Kidney disease (CKD), is relatively common among middle-aged and older adults and the incidence is increasing. For example, 119 million Canadians had CKD in 1996, while by 2004 that number had reached roughly 154 million. Furthermore, just under 1,000 people received kidney transplants in Canada in 2005, while three times that many remained on wait lists that year alone. Needless to say, the successful clinical management of CKD is dependent on a number of factors. Recently, Ms. Theone Paterson and colleagues have determined that cognitive abilities are impaired in patients with CKD following successful kidney transplant, in a similar way to that seen in patients with CKD prior to kidney failure. Importantly, they also recently found that difficulties completing both traditional and everyday cognitive problems are predictive of decreased medication adherence among renal transplant patients, and that depressive symptoms partially mediate the relationship between traditional cognitive performance and medication adherence. Therefore, the extent to which real world functional issues such as adherence is predicted by traditional and everyday problem solving, depression and self-efficacy is an important issue in renal transplant, for patients, their healthcare providers, and their caregivers. In her current research program, Ms. Paterson is focusing on the relationships among traditional and everyday measures of cognitive performance, general and medication adherence-specific self-efficacy, self-reported depressive symptoms and medication adherence in people who have undergone successful renal transplantation. The results of this work will aid not only in understanding difficulties faced by transplant patients, but also in the development of interventions designed to improve adherence and consequently, real-world functioning for these patients. Additionally, the results of this research will be used to develop sensitive and valid measures to assess real-world function in patients with CKD and ultimately improve their quality of life.