A growing proportion of new HIV infections, both locally and globally, are among women of childbearing age, and heterosexual contact is an increasingly important risk of HIV transmission. While it is clear that HIV-positive women continue to desire children, become pregnant, and give birth after knowing their HIV-positive status, the reproductive health concerns and rights of people living with and/or affected by HIV have received little attention. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the standard of HIV treatment in BC, is reducing the health risks and barriers to reproduction for people living with HIV. With appropriate adherence to treatment, HAART increases life expectancy, decreases morbidity, and dramatically reduces the risks of HIV transmission from mother-to-child and to sero-discordant sexual partners. Angela Kaida's research seeks to describe the reproductive trends of HIV-positive women in BC's ""HAART era"" (roughly 1996 and onwards) and to investigate the complex interplay between pregnancy, antiretroviral adherence, and HIV disease progression. Owing to the structure of HIV-related services and population-level data capture methods, BC provides an entirely unique and highly valuable environment in which to investigate critical questions related to HIV, HAART, and pregnancy. Notably, no other jurisdiction in the world has published population level findings on this topic. This research will provide evidence to guide the development of effective and responsive reproductive and sexual health services and policies for HIV-positive women in BC and beyond. These services are intended to support the rights of HIV positive women to be sexually active and achieve their fertility goals, while minimizing associated risks to maternal, fetal, and partner health. The findings will contribute vital information to the development of provincial, national, and international guidelines that support reproductive decision making among HIV-affected couples and inform the use of antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy.