The role of secreted protein acidic rich in cysteines (SPARC) in neurogenesis and gliogenesis in the embryonic and adult mouse brain: applications to models of Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

Stroke is the primary cause of adult disability in Canada. Recovering brain function after stroke is dependent on the brain’s ability to rewire itself and replace tissue that has died during the stroke – something that is difficult to achieve in the adult brain. Rewiring the brain requires that existing neurons sprout new fibres (axons) and connect to other neurons in a way that allows proper functioning of neural circuitry. Recovery also involves the birth of new cells to replace dead cells and to form functioning connections with new and existing neurons. These processes all occur within the extracellular matrix (ECM) – a network of fibrous proteins, gel-like sugars and linking molecules – and are promoted by a large number of growth factors and intercellular signalling molecules. Anthony Berndt’s research focuses on the role of the SPARC protein in the generation of new neurons. SPARC binds to the ECM and regulates the potency of growth factors that normally promote cell division and migration. Berndt is examining the influence of SPARC on the development of the embryonic brain and on the generation of new neurons in the adult brain. His studies will determine if SPARC's presence or absence affects the rate or manner in which brain tissue regenerates after stroke. He hopes to formulate an approach that will prompt neural stem cells normally found in the adult brain to follow the developmental steps required to form functional tissue after stroke. By understanding the function of SPARC after brain injury, he could also determine at what point of recovery such an intervention would be of greatest use. By understanding the role of SPARC, Berndt’s research could eventually lead to improved therapies for treating major brain injuries by augmenting the body's natural repair processes.