Clinical

Mortality in children under five years of age in Uganda following hospitalization for sepsis: A prospective cohort study

The United Nations Millennium Development Goal number four commits to reducing child mortality by two thirds before 2015. However, worldwide, eight million children under the age of five die annually. The majority of these deaths occur in resource-poor countries and are a result of a condition called sepsis. Sepsis usually occurs following severe infections, when the body's immune defences begin to cause harm, leading to death if left untreated. Most infectious diseases including pneumonia, diarrheal diseases and malaria, when severe, result in sepsis.

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2011

Developing Whole Brain and Spinal Cord Markers of Pathology in Neuromyelitis Optica and Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the brain and spinal cord (together termed the central nervous system), where inflammation of the myelin coating of nerves leads to cell damage and varying degrees of disability. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is another inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system; however, it differs from MS in a few subtle but important aspects. NMO primarily affects the optic nerves and spinal cord, and evidence suggests that the flow of water in cells is very important in NMO.

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2011

Cerebral and coronary vascular reactivity in patients at risk for myocardial infarction and stroke using advanced imaging and blood gas control techniques

Cardiovascular disease, including heart attack and stroke, is a major public health concern. The Public Health Agency of Canada indicates that 37 per cent of all deaths in Canada are cardiovascular in origin and approximately 10 per cent of hospitalizations in Canada are related to heart disease or stroke. Cardiovascular risk is currently estimated by assessing risk factors such as smoking status, height, weight, and the amount of cholesterol in the blood.

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2011

An investigation of cognitive behavioural therapy, mindfulness, and predictors of psychological treatment response among women with provoked vestibulodynia

Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is severe pain at the vaginal opening and the most common form of chronic genital pain in women. Although as many as 14 per cent of Canadian women and 20 per cent of adolescents are affected by this condition, it is frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated, and as a result, many women experience sexual difficulties, emotional distress, and multiple medical visits.

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2011

Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) investigation of cortical processing in children born very preterm

Children born very preterm (less than 32 weeks from conception), commonly have difficulties with learning and attention that frequently lead to problems in their academic performance. Very little is known, however, about how the brain activity of very preterm children differs from that of children born at full term. Currently, it is known that children born very preterm experience considerable pain-related stress during lengthy hospitalization following birth.

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2009

Exercise Intensity Prescription in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy Treatment

Most people today know someone affected by breast cancer. The statistics are startling, one in nine women is expected to develop breast cancer during her lifetime, but thanks to modern therapies, including chemotherapy, only one in 28 is expected to die from it, and many women go on to have a normal life expectancy. Chemotherapy , while effective, is associated with many negative short-term side effects.

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2009

Visual-spatial attention and falls risk in seniors: Do fallers show impairments in reflexive orienting?

Seniors who fall and sustain injuries or worse, injury-related deaths, represent a major health concern. Approximately one-third of seniors over the age of 65 experience one or more falls per year, 20 percent of which require medical attention. In Canada, falls result in over $2.4 billion annually in direct health care costs. A growing body of research suggests that cognitive factors, such as visual-spatial attention, play a major role in a person's risk for falling.

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2009
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Imaging Early Micro-Structural Bone Changes in the Rheumatoid Hand: A High Resolution-Peripheral Computed Tomography (HR-pQCT) Study in People with Newly Diagnosed RA

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), affects one percent of the general population. Radiographic (x-ray), evidence of bone thinning (osteoporosis), and bony destruction (erosions), in the bone surrounding inflamed joints is an important diagnostic criterion for RA. These changes are present in the hands and feet of 80 percent of people with RA and can have profound implications with regard to the development of hand deformity, functional limitations and the need for restorative joint surgery.

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2009

Do neurocognitive deficits in the evaluation of motor output contribute to falls risk in older adults?

A growing body of evidence suggests that cognitive impairment is a significant contributing factor in the increased incidence of falls among older adults. With that said, the exact neural systems within the brain that underlie an increased risk of falling remain unclear. Recently, it has been suggested that medial-frontal cortex, a region of the brain typically associated with cognitive control, plays an important role in evaluating the success or failure of movement.

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2009

Defining Immune Abnormalities And Their Consequences In The HIV Exposed But Uninfected Child

The primary route of infection for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), in infants is from mother to child. Following the introduction of 'Prevention of Mother To Child Transmission' (PMTCT), programs, HIV infection rates in newborns from mother to child (vertical transmission), have been reduced from 30 percent to less than five percent. As a result, the number of 'HIV Exposed but Uninfected' infants (HEU) has steadily risen. In South Africa, where 30 percent of all women of childbearing age are HIV infected, 300,000 HEU births occur per year.

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2009

Real-time fMRI training of functional connectivity and adaptive self-awareness

Awareness of one's thoughts and feelings represents one of the highest mental processes in humans. Its dysregulation leads to rumination, which involves repetitively focusing on negative experiences and mental events. Rumination is consistently and strongly related to depression as both a precursor and a symptom, and therefore has important treatment implications.

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2009

Social Attention and Visual Exploration in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Autism is a severe neurological developmental disorder characterized, in part, by social impairment. A key social impairment present early in the development of children with autism is abnormal gaze following. Children with autism often do not follow the eye-gaze of others towards objects or events in the environment, which hampers their development of language and social skills. It may be that the seemingly abnormal gaze following evident in children with autism results from abnormal basic attentional responses to gaze cues.

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2009

Perceptual and attentional abnormalities in autism - understanding impaired discrimination of the eyes

Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder involving impairments in social interaction, verbal and non-verbal communication, a lack of imaginative play, and repetitive and restricted solitary activities. A critical goal of autism research is the identification of biological, behavioural and cognitive markers that will help researchers determine the links between genes and autism and aid in the development of effective diagnostic tools, as well as improve upon existing intervention and treatment programs.

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2009

Sensory contributions to motor deficits after stroke: What is the role of the unaffected cortex in motor recovery?

Sensorimotor deficits after stroke are commonly associated with increased activation in a number of cortical areas in the non-affected hemisphere, including primary motor and sensory cortex. Constraining the unaffected arm in individuals with stroke stimulates recovery in the use of the stroke affected arm, perhaps by reestablishing the balance of excitability between affected and non-affected cortices controlling each arm. However, the specific physiological mechanisms that follow decreasing unaffected arm use are not completely understood.

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2009

Mind Wandering in Individuals with Schizotypal Personality Traits

Disruption of attention is a hallmark symptom of schizophrenia, and it has been shown that people with schizophrenia exhibit reduced levels of sensitivity in processing external stimuli. However, it has also been suggested that healthy individuals do not process external stimuli when they are 'mind wandering' to the extent that they normally would when they are paying attention to the task-at hand. That schizophrenia and mind wandering both involve reduced sensitivity to ongoing events in the external world suggests they may be closely related.

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2009

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