Health Services

Partnership for Ongoing Impact Assessment of Academic Detailing

The Canadian Academic Detailing collaboration (CADC) includes academic detailing (AD) programs that routinely reach over 1,000 physicians in six provinces. They deliver evidence-based, independent information on optimal prescribing practices to physicians through one-on-one or small group visits. As the health system continues to face drug safety controversies and escalating costs of chronic disease, AD holds promise for providing physicians timely access to information and tools for better prescribing and case management. While there is evidence of AD effectiveness in special research projects, rigorous evidence is lacking of real-world impacts of ongoing AD programs.

Primary Investigator: 
Award Type: 
Year: 
2008

Development of a screening strategy for community-based adverse drug related events in the emergency department

Adverse Drug Related Events (ADREs) are the most common type of preventable non-surgical adverse event related to medical care, and represent a leading cause of death. Each year, in BC alone, Emergency Departments treat an estimated 130,000 patients for ADREs, most of which are caused by medications prescribed in community settings. Unfortunately, community-based programs aimed at detecting and reducing drug-related problems have not led to a significant decline in morbidity, mortality or health services utilization. Emergency Department practitioners are well situated to play a pivotal role in the timely recognition and treatment of community-based ADREs. Unfortunately, Emergency Physicians currently detect only 50% of ADREs, missing opportunities to intervene.

Primary Investigator: 
Award Type: 
Year: 
2008

From Efficacy to Community Effectiveness. The proposed program of research, mentoring and knowledge translation will addresses the more effective, scalable, population-based, chronic disease and that …

The unprecedented investment in biomedical research during the past 50 years has resulted in many important advances in health care knowledge. However, the successful and timely integration of these advances into clinical practice remains a major challenge, especially in primary care and community settings. There is growing recognition that one of the obstacles to translating knowledge into clinical practice may be the knowledge itself, and how, where and by whom it was generated.

Primary Investigator: 
Award Type: 
Year: 
2008

Pharmaceutical sales representatives, patient safety and cost-effectiveness of care: comparative cross-sectional survey

Prescription medicines are a common and important form of treatment offered by family doctors. The information that doctors receive about the effectiveness and safety of medicines helps to determine their prescribing choices. Most doctors in Canada see pharmaceutical sales representatives regularly. Previous research has demonstrated that sales representatives influence prescribing choices and that doctors often underestimate the extent to which they are influenced. A recent example of this influence emerged in the US with the arthritis drug Vioxx.

Primary Investigator: 
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Year: 
2008

An application of situational awareness to child resuscitation

An estimated 23,000 preventable deaths occur annually in Canadian hospitals. One area of practice that is particularly time-sensitive and prone to errors is child resuscitation. The range of medical conditions underlying the need for child resuscitation, and the broad range in age and size of children, make this event one of the most stressful for healthcare providers. As a first responder, nurse performance is crucial to resuscitation outcomes. Situational awareness (SA) describes an individual’s awareness of what is happening, why it is happening and what will happen next.

Primary Investigator: 
Award Type: 
Year: 
2008

Barriers to methadone maintenance therapy access in British Columbia

Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is the most widely used and well-researched treatment for opioid dependency in Canada. MMT is regarded as an essential means to overcoming the health, social, and economic harms associated with opiate addiction, including preventing new HIV infections, reducing mortality, criminal activity, syringe sharing and unprotected sex. British Columbia was the first worldwide to launch a methadone program, and has long represented a model of excellence in MMT provision.

Primary Investigator: 
Award Type: 
Year: 
2008

Statin therapy in the prevention and management of rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease in which the immune system attacks its own joints and organs. Aside from painful symptoms, people with RA are more likely to get heart disease and die at a younger age. Statins are drugs that lower cholesterol and are used in the treatment and prevention of heart disease. Recent studies have shown that statins also have anti-inflammatory properties that may help prevent the development of RA. They may also provide a benefit to people with RA by reducing heart disease and death.

Primary Investigator: 
Award Type: 
Year: 
2008

Economic studies of seniors at high risk of falls

Falls are a major public health problem in BC and around the world. Every year, approximately one third of adults in the community aged 65 years and older will fall. In BC, falls are responsible for 85 per cent of the $211 million annual direct cost of unintentional injuries. In New Zealand, a physiotherapist-initiated, progressive, home-based strength and balance training program reduced falls by 35 per cent; it proved cost-effective in persons aged 80 years and older. This program is currently undergoing a randomized clinical trial in BC for high-risk seniors.

Primary Investigator: 
Award Type: 
Year: 
2008

When does culture make a difference? Exploring the influence of culture in palliative and end of life care

Canada has a large and growing multicultural population with different perspectives on health and illness. This brings unique challenges to the provision of appropriate palliative and end-of-life care, where culture is known to influence communication patterns, decision-making styles, responses to symptoms, treatment choices, and emotional expression at end-of-life. Previous studies have shown that unresolved cultural differences can result in poor interactions and outcomes in end-of-life care.

Primary Investigator: 
Award Type: 
Year: 
2008

Exploring the social structural dynamics of health barriers and determinants of women in Vancouver's survival sex trade: an ethnographic study

A decade ago, HIV infection among downtown eastside residents exceeded those in any other part of the “developed” world. Current neighbourhood HIV prevalence estimates range between 19 and 22 per cent, and is reported higher amongst individuals who inject drugs. Risk of HIV infection is particularly profound for women who are young, coping with violence and multiple addictions, and whose survival necessitates work in the commercial sex industry. Women and girls are politically, socially and biologically more vulnerable to HIV infection.

Primary Investigator: 
Award Type: 
Year: 
2008

What happens after conventional treatment? Investigating the feasibility of a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modality for breast cancer survivors

It is estimated that there are well over 10.5 million cancer survivors in North America and over 40 percent of the females are breast cancer survivors. Nearly three quarters of the cancer survivors experience some kind of debilitating effect(s) from cancer diagnosis and conventional treatments, including considerable fatigue, psychological distress, impaired quality of life, cognitive dysfunction, cardiac toxicity, loss of appetite, poor mental health and reduced physical and sexual functioning.

Primary Investigator: 
Award Type: 
Year: 
2008

Validating a computer adaptive test for the measurement of health outcomes in adults with musculoskeletal disorders

Although effective medical treatments and supportive services for people with joint problems (such as arthritis) are available, the choice of specific treatments and services offered must be guided by knowledge about the various challenges they encounter in their daily lives. Important health outcomes reported by people with joint problems can include their competence with daily activities, their ability to walk and handle objects, their pain or discomfort, and their emotional wellbeing.

Primary Investigator: 
Award Type: 
Year: 
2008

Defining perceptions and utilization of pharmacotherapy for menopausal symptoms among Chinese immigrant women in British Columbia

By 2017, one in five people living in Canada will belong to a visible minority group, and nearly half (between 3.2 and 4.4 million) will be Chinese or South Asian. A variety of factors – including language, education, socioeconomic status and employment – affect health and access to health care. Gender, ethnicity, and immigration are also increasingly recognized to have a significant impact. Medication use for menopausal symptoms has not been explored in the context of gender, ethnicity and immigration in Canada.

Primary Investigator: 
Award Type: 
Year: 
2008

An examination of internet use for health information among Canadian baby boomers using the 2000 general social survey

The internet is a powerful health promotion tool, and it’s predicted that this technology has the potential to influence the way health information and services are distributed and accessed. Baby boomers (those born 1946-1965) are a prime target for this type of health promotion technology, since they have been exposed to the growth and widespread use of the Internet. Additionally, baby boomers are more concerned about healthy lifestyles and healthy aging than previous generations, are more interested in self-help resources, and are more demanding of good service.

Primary Investigator: 
Award Type: 
Year: 
2008

CD-based ELISA for point-of-care diagnostics

Current methods of medical diagnostics, such as imaging and laboratory tests, tend to be time-consuming, labour intensive, and often limited to biomedical laboratories or hospital settings that have specialized equipment. In contrast, point-of-care diagnostic tools allow testing and diagnosis to be performed in a doctor's office, at a significantly reduced cost and in a shorter time to obtain test results. This contributes to faster treatment decisions and better follow-up post treatment.

Primary Investigator: 
Award Type: 
Year: 
2008

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