Implementation science

Implementation science examines the process of implementing an intervention, or adapting an intervention to settings different from the ones in which it was originally developed and tested. The goal is to understand how specific health interventions can be better adapted to different regions, cultures, genders, or conditions, and, if applicable, how the interventions can be scaled up.

MSFHR's Implementation Science Team Program supports teams of within the BC health system to plan, conduct, and study the implementation of health-related interventions using appropriate implementation science methodologies.

Watch MSFHR's introduction to implementation science webinar

Implementation toolkits

Searchable database of intervention strategies

Peer reviewed articles on implementation

Implementation evaluation

  • Jilcott , S., Ammerman, A., Sommers, J. Glasgow, R.E. (2007) Applying the RE-AIM framework to assess the public health impact of policy change. Annals of Behavioral Medicine Vol 34:2
  • MEASURE Evaluation Implementation Research Technical Working Group (2012) Fundamentals of Implementation Research. MEASURE Evaluation, U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID).

Implementation models

A list of key implementation models, theories and frameworks is available here.

  • Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research
  • PARiHS Framework: Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services:
  • Conceptual Model for Implementation Effectiveness:
    • Klein KJ, Sorra JS (1996) The Challenge of Innovation Implementation. The Academy of Management Review 1996, 21:1055–1080.
    • Klein KJ, Conn AB, Sorra JS (2001) Implementing computerized technology: An organizational analysis. J Appl Psychol, 86:811–824.
  • Dimensions of Strategic Change: Pettigrew A, Whipp R (1982)Managing change and corporate performance. In European Industrial Restructuring in the 1990s. Edited by Cool K, Neven DJ, Walter I. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press; 1992: 227–265
  • Theory-based Taxonomy for Implementation: Leeman J, Baernholdt M, Sandelowski M (2007) Developing a theory-based taxonomy of Methods for implementing change in practice. J Adv Nurs  58:191–200.
  • Ottawa Model of Research Use: Graham ID, Logan J, (2004) Innovations in knowledge transfer and continuity of care. Can J Nurs Res2004, 36: 89–103.
  • Conceptual Framework for Transferring Research to Practice:
    • Simpson DD, Dansereau DF (2007) Assessing Organizational Functioning as a Step Toward Innovation. NIDA Science and Practice Perspectives, 3: 20–28
    • Simpson DD (2002) A conceptual framework for transferring research to practice. J Subst Abuse Treat 22: 171–182.
  • Diagnositic/Needs Assessment: Kochevar LK, Yano EM (2006) Understanding health care organization needs and context. Beyond performance gaps. J Gen Intern Med 21 Suppl 2: S25–29
  • Stetler Model of Research Utilization: Stetler CB: Updating the Stetler Model of research utilization to facilitate evidence-based practice. Nurs Outlook 2001, 49: 272–279
  • Technology Implementation Process Model: Edmondson AC, Bohmer RM, Pisana GP (2001) Disrupted routines: Team learning and new technology implementation in hospitals. Adm Sci Q , 46: 685–716.
  • Replicating Effective Programs Framework: Kilbourne AM, Neumann MS, Pincus HA, Bauer MS, Stall R (2007) Implementing evidence-based interventions in health care: Application of the replicating effective programs framework. Implement Sci , 2: 42.
  • Organizational Transformation Model: VanDeusen Lukas CV, Holmes SK, Cohen AB, Restuccia J, Cramer IE, Shwartz M, Charns MP (2007) Transformational change in health care systems: An organizational model. Health Care Manage Rev 32: 309–320.
  • Implementation of Change: A Model:
    • Grol RP, Bosch MC, Hulscher ME, Eccles MP, Wensing M (2007) Planning and studying improvement in patient care: the use of theoretical perspectives. Milbank Q 85: 93–138.
    • Grol R, Wensing M, Eccles M (2005) Improving Patient Care: The Implementation of Change in Clinical Practice. Edinburgh, Scotland: Elsevier;
  • Framework of Dissemination in Health Services Intervention Research: Mendel P, Meredith LS, Schoenbaum M, Sherbourne CD, Wells KB (2008) Interventions in organizational and community context: a framework for building evidence on dissemination and implementation in health services research. Adm Policy Ment Health 35: 21–37.
  • Conceptual Framework for Implementation of Defined Practices and Programs: Fixsen DL, Naoom, S. F., Blase, K. A., Friedman, R. M. and Wallace, F. (2005) Implementation Research: A Synthesis of the Literature. (The National Implementation Research Network ed.: University of South Florida, Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute
  • Will it Work Here? A Decision-maker's Guide Adopting Innovations:
    • Brach C, Lenfestey N, Roussel A, Amoozegar J, Sorensen A (2008) Will It Work Here? A Decisionmaker's Guide to Adopting Innovations. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ);
  • Availability, Responsiveness and Continuity: An Organizational and Community Intervention Model
    • Glisson C, Schoenwald SK (2005) The ARC organizational and community intervention strategy for implementing evidence-based children's mental health treatments. Ment Health Serv Res , 7:243–259.
    • Glisson C, Landsverk J, Schoenwald S, Kelleher K, Hoagwood KE, Mayberg S, Green P (2008)  Assessing the Organizational Social Context (OSC) of Mental Health Services: Implications for Research and Practice. Adm Policy Ment Health 35: 98–113
  • A Practical, Robust Implementation and Sustainability Model (PRISM): Feldstein AC, Glasgow RE (2008) A practical, robust implementation and sustainability model (PRISM) for integrating research findings into practice. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf , 34: 228–243
  • Multi-level Conceptual Framework of Organizational Innovation Adoption:
    • Frambach RT, Schillewaert N: Organizational innovation adoption: a multi-level framework of determinants and opportunities for future research. Journal of Business Research 2001, 55: 163–176.
    • Balas E, Boren S. Managing Clinical Knowledge for Health Care Improvement. In: van Bemmel JH, McCray AT, eds. Yearbook of Medical Informatics. Stuttgart: Schattauer Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 2000:65–70;  “Why are Implementation Teams Important?” Retreived from: